Grammatical metaphor=transposition, dramatic present;
Continuous forms express speaker’s attitude;
Non-finite forms – infinitives;
Relative adjectives-more married;
Noun, used in the plural-skies, waters;
Repetition – creates metaphorical effect;
Sd, based on comparison and substitution;
Metaphor-the sunset of days, voice-a dagger of corroded brass;
Personification – likeness between animate and inanimate objects;
Metonymy – substitution of one word to another (cup=tea), the press, Big Nose=a man;
Synecdochy – part – denotes the whole, individual – the whole class, singular – for the plural(war of jungle and mountain).
Antonomasia – suggestive names: Fritz for fascist, Korobotchka, They jimmed me.
Pun – simultaneous realization of two meanings: seeing spirits or taking any?
Zeugma – v1+N1 and N2took their places and took their books, pick up shells and acquaintances;
Semantically false chain : Wanted: knowledge of Romanian, music;
Oxymoron: awfully nice;
SD, aiming at intensification of a certain feature
Simile – comparison of two unlike objects; also might and could;
Periphrasis-my better half;
Euphemism – not pleasant things to say;
Inversion(except never, only, little – norm);
Litote-double negation to give positive evaluation;
SD, based on the structure of utterance
-catch repetition(anadiplosis)-he understood. Understood that…
-chain repetition:loving is the art of living, living is…
-repetition through the text
Parallel constructions-complete and partial;
-partial parallel arrangement(in prose)
-complete p.arrangement (poetry)
-cumulation(synt pattern is repeated throughout the paragraph)
Chiasmus:Down dropped the breeze. The sails dropped down.
The notion of the functional Style.
Different people interpret the word STYLE differently.
Ch. Baulie – it’s based on a peculiar choice of words
Another variant – style as a peculiar character of a person’s speech.
WRONG(!) – the confusion of the notions: STYLE AND GENRE/LITERARY TREND
Literary trends: realism, romanticism, classicism, modernism.
Forms of literary works: novels, plays, poems, fables etc.
I.R.GALPERIN : “Style is a system of coordinated, interrelated and inter-conditioned language means, intended to fulfil a specific function of communication and aiming at a definite effect”.
The Newspaper style: effective informing of people of events. It’s performed by the press. A special choice of words is used here: e.g. to maintain diplomatic relations, resume diplomatic relations, to open talk, participate, violate an agreement, frustrate one’s plans, infringe the border.
Newspaper clichés enable a reporter to write quickly and concisely. Grammatical peculiarities: a great number of Present Perfect forms. Sequence of tenses is missing.
The scientific style: informs people of scientific events and laws of existence. It’s further subdivided into the proses style in the Humanities and that, that is used in exact sciences. Grammatical peculiarities: a great number of present indefinite forms(universal Truths) and –ing forms(make scientific notions).
The official style. Is used in official documents and in business-field. It’s very conservative. There are special regulations (both syntactic and lexical) All emotiveness and subjective modality are completely prohibited.
The Publicistic Style.This style functions to render political, ideological, ethical, social ideas, to convince people, to make them take sides. In Ancient Greece it was known as “oratoric” dtyle. Peculiarities: statements are logical but at the same time this style has a great number of expressive means.
the Belle-lettres Style. is the style of literature. It’s the richest language of communication. it performs a very important function of patterning of human feelings (воспитание чувств). The language of literary works is not homogeneous; it makes use of various means of other styles. Does it mean it is not a separate style?
Different schools name different number of styles:
Leningrad school-newspaper, scientific, official, publicistic, colloquial styles
Moscow-the belle-lettres style(instead of colloquial).
THE NOTION OF THE NORM. CONNOTATIONS. STYLISTIC DIFFERENTIATION OF THE NORM.
The literary language imposes definite rules: morphological, phonetical, syntactical, lexical. The norm is a sum of rules of what to choose among units of the language and how to use them. The literary norm defines what is correct and what is incorrect. It recommends some language units as acceptable. The norm changes slowly with the history. The notion of the norm is connected with the notion of neutrality.
Stylistic connotations. Stylistics is busy with the study of connotations.
The semantic structure of a word consists of its grammatical meaning and its lexical meaning. Lexical meaning cam be further subdivided into denotative meaning and connotative meaning. Connotations tell us about extralinguistic circumstances (friendly/unfriendly-participants: flippand, reserved).
The types of connotations:
emotive: a terrific player;
evaluative (show the speaker’s attitude towards the object): good, nice, humbug.
expressive: pleasant, unpleasant, a crocodile smile. +intensifiers(really, absolutely, quite, pretty).
stylistic (show the belonging of a word to a definite functional style).
STYLISTIC DIFFENTIATION OF THE VOCABULARY(see the scheme).
EXPRESSIVE MEANS AND STYLISTIC DEVICES.
Phonetic level – intonational and stress patterns.
Morphological level – suffixes (-let, -ish, -ie, -ette).
+Tense forms – present perfect shows our involvement.
The lexical level. Interjections, proverbs, sayings, phraseological units. Proverbs also performk not only nominating function, but they are means of emotional evaluation of facts.
Sayings are secondary nominations.
Galperin: Stylistic devices are deliberately specified expressive and neutral means of the language developed as special literary devices which carry a certain literary message.
The National British Linguistic School and representatives of the American School connect SD with the principle of defeated expectancy (Naum Jacobson and Michael Lefaterre introduced the term), which creates extra-significance. (green years).
correct speech is marked
wrong speech – unmarked structures
N. Chomski: Semimarked structures – grammatically correct, but lexically strange
(… colourless green ideas sleep furiously).
The Prague school – stylistic foregrounding. Great attention is paid to the contexts, which actualize foregrounding(of affixes, roots, words, sentences).
The Russian linguistic school thinks that stylistic devices are not a violation of the norm, they are prompted by the language itself. They are realized due to different mechanisms: compsrison, substitution, repetition and some others.
Violation of the norm(I.V.Arnold) result in a Semimarked structure.
All these theories are right. Stylistic devices are facts of emotive poetic language. They aqre more complicated by nature than any neutral structure. They are many-sided and can be approached from different angles, and each of the above given interpretations.
THE STYLISTIC POTENTIAL OF THE MORPHEMIC LEVEL.
A morpheme is a minimal meaningful unit. Morphemes fall into roots, affixes. Roots carry the denotational meaning of a word, affixes – its grammatical meaning.
Grammatical morphemes denote the categories of number and tense. Word building affixes added to a root coin a new word. They may carry negation, contrast, smallness and all kinds of evaluativeness.
repetition of the affix or the root.
e.g. overbrave, overfearful, overfriendly
e.g. we were sitting in the cheapest of all cheap restaurants , that cheapen that cheap street.
violation of traditional combinability
e.g. She was waiting for something to happen or everything to unhappen.
e.g. She was a young and unbeautiful woman.(defeated expectancy).
e.g. piglet, kitchenette
The expressive potential of parts of speech and their categories.
Two types of substitution:
In this case one form is used instead of another to create a stylistic effect.
e.g. Dramatic present: She arrives, sits down and so on.
The grammatical tense becomes stylistically marked. It performs two important stylistic functions: it makes the narration dynamic and secondly it introduces the voice of the personage, who observes this.
Continuous forms do not always express continuity. They are frequently used to convey the emotional state of the speaker (his conviction, determination, surprise, disapproval).
e.g. Well, she’s never coming here again – I tell you straight.
e.g. you are being very absurd!
verbs of physical or mental perception do not usually admit of continuous forms, but
e.g. What am I hearing?
Non-finite forms may be also very emphatic, when used as independent sentences.
e.g. To take steps!? How? To have a double doze of publicity in that family?
e.g. I do know that.
The ADJECTIVE and its potential. The NOUN and its potential.
Relative adjectives have no degree of comparison. but authors violate this rule.
e.g. Deader than a door nail. He looked extremely married.
Degrees of comparison.
e.g. I love you mucher. Plenty mucher. He tooer.
Some adjectives are used only predicatively: ill, sorry, afraid.
e.g. She was a sorry right.
The noun has two grammatical categories: number and case, and a very specific marker – the article.
In this system we also come across cases of transposition.
Abstract nouns are uncountable, they have no number.
e.g. The snows of Kilimanjaro , the skies of Italy.
Proper names – ANTONOMASIA.
ALSO: Some nouns as quantifiers
e.g. When I was a younger man two wives ago, 250000 cigarettes ago, 3000 quarters of goose ago…
Metaphorical effect can be also achieved through repetition:
e.g. in bed after bed after bed…